# A Framework for Localizing Rings

For the convenience of the developer, we outline a general framework for creating concrete instances of localized rings in OSCAR, addressing relevant abstract types as well as a standardized set of functions whose concrete behavior must be implemented.

We roughly follow the outline of the previous subsection on localizing multivariate rings which provides illustrating examples. With regard to notation, the name Rloc will refer to the localization of a commutative ring R with 1.

## Localized Rings

All multiplicatively closed subsets should belong to the AbsMultSet abstract type and all localized rings should belong to the AbsLocalizedRing abstract type.

The basic functionality that has to be realized for any concrete instance of AbsMultSet is the containment check for elements in multiplicatively closed subsets via the in function.

For each concrete instance of AbsLocalizedRing, the localization constructor as well as the functions base_ring and inverted_set need to be implemented. Moreover, as for any other type of rings in OSCAR, methods for the standardized set of functions of OSCAR's general Ring Interface must be supplied.

## Elements of Localized Rings

All elements of localized rings should belong to the AbsLocalizedRingElem abstract type.

Coercing (pairs of) elements of R into fractions in Rloc must be possible as indicated below:

   (Rloc::AbsLocalizedRing)(f::RingElem)
(Rloc::AbsLocalizedRing)(f::RingElem, g::RingElem; check::Bool=true)

The first constructor maps the element f of R to the fraction f//1 in Rloc. The second constructor takes a pair f, g of elements of R to the fraction f//g in Rloc. The default check = true stands for testing whether g is an admissible denominator. As this test is often expensive, it may be convenient to set check = false.

For any concrete instance of type AbsLocalizedRingElem, methods for the functions parent, numerator, and denominator must be provided. Moreover, if a cancelation function for the type of fractions under consideration is not yet available, such a function should be implemented and named reduce_fraction.

## Homomorphisms From Localized Rings

The abstract type for homomorphisms from localized rings is MPolyLocalizedRingHom. For each concrete instance, the functions domain and codomain as well as restricted_map must be realized. Here, the latter function is meant to return the composition with the localization map.

## Ideals in Localized Rings

All ideals in localized rings belong to the abstract type AbsLocalizedIdeal. For a concrete instance, the constructors to be implemented are:

   ideal(W::AbsLocalizedRing, f::AbsLocalizedRingElem)
ideal(W::AbsLocalizedRing, v::Vector{LocalizedRingElemType}) where {LocalizedRingElemType<:AbsLocalizedRingElem}

The usual getter functions base_ring, gens, number_of_generators, and gen must be realized.

Moreover, a method for ideal membership via the in function is required.