# Frequently Asked Questions

## General questions

**Q: How do I install OSCAR?**

You can find our installation instructions here.

**Q: Can I find all methods that apply to a given object?**

Yes, Julia provides the function methodswith for this very purpose.

For your convenience, let us give an example here. To this end, we first create a projective space in OSCAR:

```
julia> v = projective_space(NormalToricVariety,2)
Normal toric variety
julia> typeof(v)
NormalToricVariety
```

Suppose that we now want to find all methods that accept a `NormalToricVariety`

as one of their arguments. This can be achieved as follows:

```
julia> methodswith(typeof(v))
[1] intersection_form(v::NormalToricVariety) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/CohomologyClasses/special_attributes.jl:101
[2] mori_cone(v::NormalToricVariety) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/attributes.jl:976
[3] nef_cone(v::NormalToricVariety) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/attributes.jl:953
[4] toric_ideal(ntv::NormalToricVariety) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/attributes.jl:510
[5] volume_form(v::NormalToricVariety) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/CohomologyClasses/special_attributes.jl:50
```

Often it can be beneficial to also include supertypes in the search:

`julia> methodswith(typeof(v), supertypes = true)`

As of December 2022, this results in a list of 101 functions.

Note that we can also find the constructors, i.e. functions that return an object of type `NormalToricVariety`

. This is possible with the Julia function methods:

```
julia> methods(typeof(v))
# 5 methods for type constructor:
[1] NormalToricVariety(P::Polyhedron) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/constructors.jl:183
[2] NormalToricVariety(PF::PolyhedralFan) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/constructors.jl:155
[3] NormalToricVariety(rays::Vector{Vector{Int64}}, max_cones::Vector{Vector{Int64}}; non_redundant) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/constructors.jl:131
[4] NormalToricVariety(C::Cone) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/constructors.jl:79
[5] NormalToricVariety(polymakeNTV::Polymake.BigObject) in Oscar at /datadisk/Computer/Mathematics_software/PackagesForJulia/Oscar.jl/src/ToricVarieties/NormalToricVarieties/constructors.jl:8
```

**Q: Why do you have your own matrix types, and why do they not support the exact same commands as Julia matrices?**

Unfortunately, Julia's matrices and linear algebra cannot be made to work in our context due to two independent problems:

- In empty matrices (0 rows or columns) all that is known is the
*type*of the matrix entries, however for the complex types used in OSCAR, this information is not sufficient to create elements, hence`zero(T)`

or friends cannot work. - Many functions (e.g.
`det`

) assume that all types used embed into the real or complex numbers, in Julia`det(ones(Int, (1,1))) == 1.0`

, so the fact that this is exactly the integer`1`

is lost. Furthermore, more general rings cannot be embedded into the reals at all.

**Q: Why can zero(T) for a type T not work?**

At least two reasons:

The type depends on data that is not a bit-type.

Even if it could, it is not desirable. Typical example: computations in $\mathbb Z/n\mathbb Z$, so modular arithmetic. If $n$ is small, then it is tempting to define a type

`T`

depending on $n$. We actually did this, and tried to use this. It did not work well, for various reasons. E.g.:A generic algorithmic pattern for problems over the integers is to solve them by solving them modulo $n$ for many $n$, e.g. chosen as prime numbers, and then to combine them. If the type depends on $n$, then for every prime the code gets compiled, thus negating any advantages from the use of modular techniqes.

Of course, one could make the $n$ an additional parameter to all functions needing it, but then e.g. addition of matrices would have to be implemented specifically for this case, negating the advantages of generic implementations.

In OSCAR, the role of the type is split between the actual Julia type and the `parent`

.

**Q: What is a parent?**

Almost all element-like objects in OSCAR have a parent, i.e., they belong to some larger structure. For example algebraic numbers belong to a number field, modular integers belong to a ring $\mathbb Z/n\mathbb Z$, permutations are elements of permutation groups and so on. The data common to all such elements is out-sourced to the parent. For a number field for example, the parent contains the polynomial used to define the field (plus other information).

Given that a type alone is not large enough to contain the data, the parent is used. Roughly, outside a function signature, a parent replaces the role of the type. For example, for a ring element `elm`

in OSCAR `zero(parent(elm))`

works, even if `zero(typeof(elm))`

may not.

**Q: How can I access or install custom GAP packages (e.g. unpublished ones)?**

An already locally installed GAP package can be loaded into the OSCAR session via `GAP.Packages.load`

, where the first argument is the local path to the package directory (the one that contains the `PackageInfo.g`

file). This works only if no other version of this package has been loaded already.

If Oscar loads the package in question already on startup but you want a different version of this package to be loaded, you can force this by storing the desired version in the `pkg`

subdirectory of the user's root directory (`GAPInfo.UserGapRoot`

in GAP).

Installing a new GAP package for which you know the URL of a package archive can be done via `GAP.Packages.install`

, where the first argument is this URL.

**Q: Why does my program not terminate?**

Many of the algorithms implemented in OSCAR have a very high complexity. Even if not calling one of these algorithms directly, you may be using it in the background. Please read our page on Complex Algorithms in OSCAR.

**Q: How do I cite OSCAR?**

Please see here.

## Windows specific

**Q: How can I install OSCAR on Windows?**

Please follow the install instructions on our website.

**Q: Why does OSCAR require WSL on Windows?**

Several of the OSCAR corner stones originate from Unix-like operating systems and have no or only limited native support for Windows.

**Q: How can I access Linux files from the Explorer?**

Type `\\wsl$`

into the Explorer address bar, then press the Enter key.

## Linux specific

**Q: Why can't I install OSCAR using the Julia version installed by my package manager?**

Some Linux distributions unfortunately ship crippled versions of Julia by default, which prevent OSCAR from working. For example the Debian and Ubuntu Julia packages are missing some files required by OSCAR. In this case, this can be resolved by also installing the `libjulia-dev`

package.

For this reason, we recommend always using the official Julia binaries available form the Julia website.

**Q: What to do if I get an error similar to libstdc++.so.6: version `GLIBCXX_3.4.26'?**

Sometimes installing or updating OSCAR gives the error `libstdc++.so.6: version `GLIBCXX_3.4.26'`

or a similar one.

This typically happens when manually installing Julia using the official Julia binaries from their website. These bundle their own copy of the C++ standard library, which can lead to trouble if its version differs from the system's C++ library.

As a workaround, you can rename the copy of the C++ library bundled with Julia, so that the system copy is used. This can be achieved by executing the following Julia code:

```
path = Libdl.dlpath("libstdc++")
mv(path,"$path.bak")
```

If for some reason you need to restore the C++ library bundled with Julia, you can simply rename it back.

**Q: Why does OSCAR fail to precompile when using it with GNU parallel?**

You get errors like the following when trying to run some script using OSCAR with GNU parallel:

` ERROR: LoadError: InitError: ArgumentError: '.../deps/<something>_jll' exists. `force=true` is required to remove '...' before copying.`

There was a bug in julia versions before 1.8 that ignored the parent argument for the `tempname`

function when the `TMPDIR`

environment variable is set and GNU parallel by default sets `TMPDIR`

to `/tmp`

.

Either upgrade to Julia 1.8 or later, or add `delete!(ENV, "TMPDIR");`

to the beginning of your julia code (before importing / using Oscar).