# Affine Algebras

With regard to notation, we use affine algebra as a synonym for quotient ring of a multivariate polynomial ring modulo an ideal. More specifically, if $R$ is a multivariate polynomial ring with coefficient ring $C$, and $A=R/I$ is the quotient ring of $R$ modulo an ideal $I$ of $R$, we refer to $A$ as an affine algebra over $C$, or an affine $C$-algebra. In this section, we discuss functionality for handling such algebras in OSCAR.

Note

Most of the functions discussed here rely on Gröbner basis techniques. They are implemented for affine algebras over fields (exact fields supported by OSCAR) and, if not indicated otherwise, for affine algebras over the integers.

Note

In OSCAR, elements of quotient rings are not necessarily reduced with regard to the modulus of the quotient ring. Operations involving Gröbner basis computations may lead to partial reductions. Full reductions, depending on the choice of a monomial ordering, are achieved by explicitly computing normal forms. The functions simplify and simplify! discussed in this section implements this.

Note

Each grading on a multivariate polynomial ring R in OSCAR descends to a grading on the affine algebra A = R/I (recall that OSCAR ideals of graded polynomial rings are required to be homogeneous). Functionality for dealing with such gradings and our notation for describing this functionality descend accordingly. This applies, in particular, to the functions ìs_graded, ìs_standard_graded, ìs_z_graded, ìs_zm_graded, and ìs_positively_graded which will not be discussed again here.

## Types

The OSCAR type for quotient rings of multivariate polynomial rings is of parametrized form MPolyQuo{T}, with elements of type MPolyQuoElem{T}. Here, T is the element type of the polynomial ring.

## Constructors

quoMethod
quo(R::MPolyRing, I::MPolyIdeal) -> MPolyQuoRing, Map

Create the quotient ring $R/I$ and return the new ring as well as the projection map $R\rightarrow R/I$.

quo(R::MPolyRing, V::Vector{MPolyElem}) -> MPolyQuoRing, Map

As above, where $I\subset R$ is the ideal generated by the polynomials in $V$.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2-y^3, x-y]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^2 - y^3, x - y), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^2 - y^3, x - y) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> typeof(A)
MPolyQuo{fmpq_mpoly}

julia> typeof(x)
fmpq_mpoly

julia> typeof(A(x))
MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2-y^3, x-y]));

julia> p
Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^2 - y^3, x - y) defined by a julia-function with inverse

julia> p(x)
x

julia> typeof(p(x))
MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}

julia> S, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> B, _ = quo(S, ideal(S, [x^2*z-y^3, x-y]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  by ideal(x^2*z - y^3, x - y), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  by ideal(x^2*z - y^3, x - y) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> typeof(B)
MPolyQuo{MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}}
source

## Data Associated to Affine Algebras

### Basic Data

If A=R/I is the quotient ring of a multivariate polynomial ring R modulo an ideal I of R, then

• base_ring(A) refers to R,
• modulus(A) to I,
• gens(A) to the generators of A,
• ngens(A) to the number of these generators, and
• gen(A, i) as well as A[i] to the i-th such generator.
###### Examples
julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, y, z])

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x^2, z-x^3]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> base_ring(A)
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field

julia> modulus(A)
ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z)

julia> gens(A)
3-element Vector{MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}}:
x
y
z

julia> ngens(A)
3

julia> gen(A, 2)
y


grading_groupMethod
grading_group(A::MPolyQuo{<:MPolyElem_dec})

If A is, say, G-graded, return G.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2*z-y^3, x-y]));

GrpAb: Z
source

### Dimension

dimMethod
dim(A::MPolyQuo)

Return the Krull dimension of A.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, y, z])

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x^2, z-x^3]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> dim(A)
1
source
vdimMethod
vdim(A::MPolyQuo)

If, say, $A = R/I$, where $R$ is a multivariate polynomial ring over a field $K$, and $I$ is an ideal of $R$, return the dimension of $A$ as a $K$-vector space if $I$ is zero-dimensional (otherwise, return $-1$).

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^3+y^3+z^3-1, x^2+y^2+z^2-1, x+y+z-1]));

julia> vdim(A)
6

julia> I = modulus(A)
ideal(x^3 + y^3 + z^3 - 1, x^2 + y^2 + z^2 - 1, x + y + z - 1)

julia> groebner_basis(I, ordering = lex(base_ring(I)))
Gröbner basis with elements
1 -> z^3 - z^2
2 -> y^2 + y*z - y + z^2 - z
3 -> x + y + z - 1
with respect to the ordering
lex([x, y, z])
source

## Elements of Affine Algebras

### Types

The OSCAR type for elements of quotient rings of multivariate polynomial rings is of parametrized form MPolyQuo{T}, where T is the element type of the polynomial ring.

### Creating Elements of Affine Algebras

Elements of an affine algebra $A = R/I$ are created as images of elements of $R$ under the projection map or by directly coercing elements of $R$ into $A$.

###### Examples
julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2, x*y^4-x*y^2]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^3*y^2 - x^2*y^3, x*y^4 - x*y^2), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^3*y^2 - x^2*y^3, x*y^4 - x*y^2) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> f = p(x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2+x*y)
x^3*y^2 - x^2*y^3 + x*y

julia> typeof(f)
MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}

julia> g = A(x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2+x*y)
x^3*y^2 - x^2*y^3 + x*y

julia> f == g
true


### Reducing Elements of Affine Algebras

simplifyMethod
simplify(f::MPolyQuoElem)

Reduce f with regard to the modulus of the quotient ring.

simplify!(f::MPolyQuoElem)

Reduce f with regard to the modulus of the quotient ring, and replace f by the reduction.

Examples

julia> R, (x,) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^4]));

julia> f = p(x-x^6)
-x^6 + x

julia> simplify(f)
x

julia> f
-x^6 + x

julia> simplify!(f)
x

julia> f
x
source

### Tests on Elements of Affine Algebras

==Method
==(f::MPolyQuoElem{T}, g::MPolyQuoElem{T}) where T

Return true if f is equal to g, false otherwise.

Examples

julia> R, (x,) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^4]));

julia> f = p(x-x^6)
-x^6 + x

julia> g = p(x)
x

julia> f == g
true
source

is_homogeneousMethod
is_homogeneous(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given an element f of a graded affine algebra, return true if f is homogeneous, false otherwise.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x, z^3-x^3]));

julia> f = p(y^2-x^2+z^4)
-x^2 + y^2 + z^4

julia> is_homogeneous(f)
true

julia> f
z^4
source

### Data associated to Elements of Affine Algebras

Given an element f of an affine algebra A,

• parent(f) refers to A.

In the graded case, we also have:

homogeneous_componentsMethod
homogeneous_components(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given an element f of a graded affine algebra, return the homogeneous components of f.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x, z^3-x^3]));

julia> f = p(y^2-x^2+x*y*z+z^4)
-x^2 + x*y*z + y^2 + z^4

julia> homogeneous_components(f)
Dict{GrpAbFinGenElem, MPolyQuoElem{MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}}} with 2 entries:
 => z^4
 => y^2*z
source
homogeneous_componentMethod
homogeneous_component(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec}, g::GrpAbFinGenElem)

Given an element f of a graded affine algebra, and given an element g of the grading group of that algebra, return the homogeneous component of f of degree g.

homogeneous_component(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec}, g::Vector{<:IntegerUnion})

Given an element f of a $\mathbb Z^m$-graded affine algebra A, say, and given a vector g of $m$ integers, convert g into an element of the grading group of A, and return the homogeneous component of f whose degree is that element.

homogeneous_component(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec}, g::IntegerUnion)

Given an element f of a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra A, say, and given an integer g, convert g into an element of the grading group of A, and return the homogeneous component of f whose degree is that element.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x, z^3-x^3]));

julia> f = p(y^2-x^2+x*y*z+z^4)
-x^2 + x*y*z + y^2 + z^4

julia> homogeneous_component(f, 4)
z^4
source
degreeMethod
degree(f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given a homogeneous element f of a graded affine algebra, return the degree of f.

degree(::Type{Vector{Int}}, f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given a homogeneous element f of a $\mathbb Z^m$-graded affine algebra, return the degree of f, converted to a vector of integer numbers.

degree(::Type{Int}, f::MPolyQuoElem{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given a homogeneous element f of a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra, return the degree of f, converted to an integer number.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"] );

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x, z^3-x^3]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  by ideal(-x + y, -x^3 + z^3), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  by ideal(-x + y, -x^3 + z^3) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> f = p(y^2-x^2+z^4)
-x^2 + y^2 + z^4

julia> degree(f)

julia> typeof(degree(f))
GrpAbFinGenElem

julia> degree(Int, f)
4

julia> typeof(degree(Int, f))
Int64
source

## Ideals in Affine Algebras

### Constructors

idealMethod
ideal(A::MPolyQuo{T}, V::Vector{T}) where T <: MPolyElem

Given a (graded) quotient ring A=R/I and a vector V of (homogeneous) polynomials in R, create the ideal of A which is generated by the images of the entries of V.

ideal(A::MPolyQuo{T}, V::Vector{MPolyQuoElem{T}}) where T <: MPolyElem

Given a (graded) quotient ring A and a vector V of (homogeneous) elements of A, create the ideal of A which is generated by the entries of V.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2-y^3, x-y]));

julia> I = ideal(A, [x^2-y])
ideal(x^2 - y)

julia> S, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> B, _ = quo(S, ideal(S, [x^2*z-y^3, x-y]));

julia> J = ideal(B, [x^2-y^2])
ideal(x^2 - y^2)
source

### Reducing Ideals in Affine Algebras

simplifyMethod
simplify(a::MPolyQuoIdeal)

Reduce a with regard to the modulus of the quotient ring.

simplify!(a::MPolyQuoIdeal)

Reduce a with regard to the modulus of the quotient ring, and replace a by the reduction.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2, x*y^4-x*y^2]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [x^3*y^4-x+y, x*y+y^2*x])
ideal(x^3*y^4 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)

julia> simplify(a)
ideal(x^2*y^3 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)

julia> a
ideal(x^3*y^4 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)

julia> simplify!(a);

julia> a
ideal(x^2*y^3 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)
source

### Data Associated to Ideals in Affine Algebras

#### Basic Data

If a is an ideal of the affine algebra A, then

• base_ring(a) refers to A,
• gens(a) to the generators of a,
• ngens(a) to the number of these generators, and
• gen(a, i) as well as a[i] to the i-th such generator.
###### Examples
julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x^2, z-x^3]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [x-y, z^4])
ideal(x - y, z^4)

julia> base_ring(a)
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z)

julia> gens(a)
2-element Vector{MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}}:
x - y
z^4

julia> ngens(a)
2

julia> gen(a, 2)
z^4


#### Dimension of Ideals in Affine Algebras

dimMethod
dim(a::MPolyQuoIdeal)

Return the Krull dimension of a.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x^2, z-x^3]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [x-y])
ideal(x - y)

julia> dim(a)
0
source

#### Minimal Sets of Generators

In the graded case, we have:

minimal_generating_setMethod
minimal_generating_set(I::MPolyQuoIdeal{<:MPolyElem_dec})

Given a homogeneous ideal I in a graded affine algebra over a field, return an array containing a minimal set of generators of I.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> V = [x, z^2, x^3+y^3, y^4, y*z^5];

julia> I = ideal(R, V)
ideal(x, z^2, x^3 + y^3, y^4, y*z^5)

julia> A, p = quo(R, ideal(R, [x-y]));

julia> J = ideal(A, [p(x) for x in V]);

julia> minimal_generating_set(J)
2-element Vector{MPolyQuoElem{MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}}}:
x
z^2
source

### Operations on Ideals in Affine Algebras

#### Simple Ideal Operations in Affine Algebras

##### Powers of Ideal
^Method
:^(a::MPolyQuoIdeal, m::Int)

Return the m-th power of a.

source
##### Sum of Ideals
+Method
:+(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, b::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}) where T

Return the sum of a and b.

source
##### Product of Ideals
*Method
:*(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, b::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}) where T

Return the product of a and b.

source

#### Intersection of Ideals

intersectMethod
intersect(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, bs::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}...) where T

Return the intersection of two or more ideals.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2-y^3, x-y]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [y^2])
ideal(y^2)

julia> b = ideal(A, [x])
ideal(x)

julia> intersect(a,b)
ideal(x*y)
source

#### Ideal Quotients

quotientMethod
quotient(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, b::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}) where T

Return the ideal quotient of a by b. Alternatively, use a:b.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^2-y^3, x-y]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [y^2])
ideal(y^2)

julia> b = ideal(A, [x])
ideal(x)

julia> a:b
ideal(y)
source

### Tests on Ideals in Affine Algebras

#### Basic Tests

iszeroMethod
iszero(a::MPolyQuoIdeal)

Return true if a is the zero ideal, false otherwise.

source

#### Equality of Ideals in Affine Algebras

==Method
==(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, b::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}) where T

Return true if a is equal to b, false otherwise.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2, x*y^4-x*y^2]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [x^3*y^4-x+y, x*y+y^2*x])
ideal(x^3*y^4 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)

julia> b = ideal(A, [x^3*y^3-x+y, x^2*y+y^2*x])
ideal(x^3*y^3 - x + y, x^2*y + x*y^2)

julia> a == b
false
source

#### Containment of Ideals in Affine Algebras

issubsetMethod
issubset(a::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}, b::MPolyQuoIdeal{T}) where T

Return true if a is contained in b, false otherwise.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^3*y^2-y^3*x^2, x*y^4-x*y^2]));

julia> a = ideal(A, [x^3*y^4-x+y, x*y+y^2*x])
ideal(x^3*y^4 - x + y, x*y^2 + x*y)

julia> b = ideal(A, [x^3*y^3-x+y, x^2*y+y^2*x])
ideal(x^3*y^3 - x + y, x^2*y + x*y^2)

julia> issubset(a,b)
false

julia> issubset(b,a)
true
source

## Homomorphisms From Affine Algebras

If $A=R/I$ is an affine $C$-algebra, and $S$ is any ring, then defining a ring homomorphism $\overline{\phi}: A \rightarrow S$ means to define a ring homomorphism $\phi: R \rightarrow S$ such that $I\subset \ker(\phi)$. Thus, $\overline{\phi}$ is determined by specifying its restriction to $C$, and by assigning an image to each generator of $A$. In OSCAR, such homomorphisms are created by using the following constructor:

homMethod
hom(A::MPolyQuo, S::NCRing, coeff_map, images::Vector; check::Bool = true)

hom(A::MPolyQuo, S::NCRing, images::Vector; check::Bool = true)

Given a homomorphism coeff_map from C to S, where C is the coefficient ring of the base ring of A, and given a vector images of ngens(A) elements of S, return the homomorphism A $\to$ S whose restriction to C is coeff_map, and which sends the i-th generator of A to the i-th entry of images.

If no coefficient map is entered, invoke a canonical homomorphism of C to S, if such a homomorphism exists, and throw an error, otherwise.

Note

The function returns a well-defined homomorphism A $\to$ S iff the given data defines a homomorphism from the base ring of A to S whose kernel contains the modulus of A. This condition is checked by the function in case check = true (default).

Note

In case check = true (default), the function also checks the conditions below:

• If S is graded, the assigned images must be homogeneous with respect to the given grading.
• If S is noncommutative, the assigned images must pairwise commute.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"] );

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [y-x^2, z-x^3]));

julia> S, (s, t) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["s", "t"]);

julia> F = hom(A, S, [s, s^2, s^3])
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z)
Codomain:
=========
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in s, t over Rational Field
source

Given a ring homomorphism F from R to S as above, domain(F) and codomain(F) refer to R and S, respectively. Given ring homomorphisms F from R to S and G from S to T as above, compose(F, G) refers to their composition.

## Homomorphisms of Affine Algebras

The OSCAR homomorphism type AffAlgHom models ring homomorphisms R $\to$ S such that the type of both R and S is a subtype of Union{MPolyRing{T}, MPolyQuo{U}}, where T <: FieldElem and U <: MPolyElem{T}. Functionality for these homomorphism is discussed in what follows.

### Data Associated to Homomorphisms of Affine Algebras

preimageMethod
preimage(F::AffAlgHom, I::U) where U <: Union{MPolyIdeal, MPolyQuoIdeal}

Return the preimage of the ideal I under F.

source
###### Examples
julia> D1, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C1, (s,t) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["s", "t"]);

julia> V1 = [s^3, s^2*t, s*t^2, t^3];

julia> para = hom(D1, C1, V1)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in w, x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
w -> 
x -> 
y -> 
z -> 
Codomain:
=========
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in s, t over Rational Field graded by
s -> 
t -> 

julia> twistedCubic = kernel(para)
ideal(-x*z + y^2, -w*z + x*y, -w*y + x^2)

julia> C2, p2 = quo(D1, twistedCubic);

julia> D2, (a, b, c) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["a", "b", "c"]);

julia> V2 = [p2(w-y), p2(x), p2(z)];

julia> proj = hom(D2, C2, V2)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in a, b, c over Rational Field graded by
a -> 
b -> 
c -> 
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in w, x, y, z over Rational Field graded by
w -> 
x -> 
y -> 
z ->  by ideal(-x*z + y^2, -w*z + x*y, -w*y + x^2)

julia> nodalCubic = kernel(proj)
ideal(-a^2*c + b^3 - 2*b^2*c + b*c^2)

julia> D3,y = PolynomialRing(QQ, "y" => 1:3);

julia> C3, x = PolynomialRing(QQ, "x" => 1:3);

julia> V3 = [x*x, x*x, x*x];

julia> F3 = hom(D3, C3, V3)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in y, y, y over Rational Field
Codomain:
=========
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, x, x over Rational Field

julia> sphere = ideal(C3, [x^3 + x^3  + x^3 - 1])
ideal(x^3 + x^3 + x^3 - 1)

julia> steinerRomanSurface = preimage(F3, sphere)
ideal(y^6*y^6 + 2*y^6*y^3*y^3 + y^6*y^6 + 2*y^3*y^6*y^3 + 2*y^3*y^3*y^6 - y^3*y^3*y^3 + y^6*y^6)


### Tests on Homomorphisms of Affine Algebras

is_injectiveMethod
is_injective(F::AffAlgHom)

Return true if F is injective, false otherwise.

source
is_surjectiveMethod
is_surjective(F::AffAlgHom)

Return true if F is is_surjective, false otherwise.

source
is_bijectiveMethod
is_bijective(F::AffAlgHom)

Return true if F is bijective, false otherwise.

source
isfiniteMethod
isfinite(F::AffAlgHom)

Return true if F is finite, false otherwise.

source
###### Examples
julia> D, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> S, (a, b, c) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["a", "b", "c"]);

julia> C, p = quo(S, ideal(S, [c-b^3]));

julia> V = [p(2*a + b^6), p(7*b - a^2), p(c^2)];

julia> F = hom(D, C, V)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in a, b, c over Rational Field by ideal(-b^3 + c)

julia> is_surjective(F)
true

julia> D1, _ = quo(D, kernel(F));

julia> F1 = hom(D1, C, V);

julia> is_bijective(F1)
true

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, [ "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C, (s, t) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["s", "t"]);

julia> V = [s*t, t, s^2];

julia> paraWhitneyUmbrella = hom(R, C, V)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field
Codomain:
=========
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in s, t over Rational Field

julia> D, _ = quo(R, kernel(paraWhitneyUmbrella));

julia> isfinite(hom(D, C, V))
true


### Inverting Homomorphisms of Affine Algebras

inverseMethod
inverse(F::AffAlgHom)

If F is bijective, return its inverse.

Examples

julia> D1, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> D, _ = quo(D1, [y-x^2, z-x^3])
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> C, (t,) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["t"]);

julia> F = hom(D, C, [t, t^2, t^3]);

julia> is_bijective(F)
true

julia> G = inverse(F)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in t over Rational Field
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z)

julia> G(t)
x
source
julia> D1, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> D, _ = quo(D1, [y-x^2, z-x^3])
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> C, (t,) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["t"]);

julia> para = hom(D, C, [t, t^2, t^3]);

julia> is_bijective(para)
true

julia> inverse(para)
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in t over Rational Field
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x^2 + y, -x^3 + z)


## Subalgebras

### Subalgebra Membership

subalgebra_membershipMethod
subalgebra_membership(f::T, V::Vector{T}) where T <: Union{MPolyElem, MPolyQuoElem}

Given an element f of a graded multivariate polynomial ring over a field, or of a quotient ring of such a ring, and given a vector V of elements in the same ring, consider the subalgebra generated by the entries of V in that ring. If f is contained in the subalgebra, return (true, h), where h is giving the polynomial relation. Return, (false, 0), otherwise.

Examples

julia> R, x = PolynomialRing(QQ, "x" => 1:3)
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, x, x over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, x, x])

julia> f = x^6*x^6-x^6*x^6;

julia> V = [x^3*x^3-x^3*x^3, x^3*x^3+x^3*x^3]
2-element Vector{fmpq_mpoly}:
x^3*x^3 - x^3*x^3
x^3*x^3 + x^3*x^3

julia> subalgebra_membership(f, V)
(true, t_1*t_2)
source

### Minimal Subalgebra Generators

minimal_subalgebra_generatorsMethod
minimal_subalgebra_generators(V::Vector{T}) where T <: Union{MPolyElem, MPolyQuoElem}

Given a vector V of homogeneous elements of a positively graded multivariate polynomial ring, or of a quotient ring of such a ring, return a minimal subset of the elements in V which, in the given ring, generate the same subalgebra as all elements in V.

Note

The conditions on V and the given ring are automatically checked.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field graded by
x -> 
y -> , MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}[x, y])

julia> V = [x, y, x^2+y^2]
3-element Vector{MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}}:
x
y
x^2 + y^2

julia> minimal_subalgebra_generators(V)
2-element Vector{MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}}:
x
y
source

## Noether Normalization

noether_normalizationMethod
noether_normalization(A::MPolyQuo)

Given an affine algebra $A=R/I$ over a field $K$, return a triple $(V,F,G)$ such that: $V$ is a vector of $d=\dim A$ elements of $A$, represented by linear forms $l_i\in R$, and such that $K[V]\hookrightarrow A$ is a Noether normalization for $A$; $F: A=R/I \rightarrow B = R/\phi(I)$ is an isomorphism, induced by a linear change $\phi$ of coordinates of $R$ which maps the $l_i$ to the the last $d$ variables of $R$; and $G = F^{-1}$.

Warning

The algorithm may not terminate over a small finite field. If it terminates, the result is correct.

source
###### Examples
julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x*y, x*z]));

julia> L = noether_normalization(A);

julia> L
2-element Vector{MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}}:
-2*x + y
-5*y + z

julia> L
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(x*y, x*z)
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(2*x^2 + x*y, 10*x^2 + 5*x*y + x*z)

julia> L
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(2*x^2 + x*y, 10*x^2 + 5*x*y + x*z)
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(x*y, x*z)


## Normalization

normalizationMethod
normalization(A::MPolyQuo; alg = :equidimDec)

Find the normalization of a reduced affine algebra over a perfect field $K$. That is, given the quotient $A=R/I$ of a multivariate polynomial ring $R$ over $K$ modulo a radical ideal $I$, compute the integral closure $\overline{A}$ of $A$ in its total ring of fractions $Q(A)$, together with the embedding $f: A \rightarrow \overline{A}$.

Implemented Algorithms and how to Read the Output

The function relies on the algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch which proceeds by finding a suitable decomposition $I=I_1\cap\dots\cap I_r$ into radical ideals $I_k$, together with maps $A = R/I \rightarrow A_k=\overline{R/I_k}$ which give rise to the normalization map of $A$:

$$$A\hookrightarrow A_1\times \dots\times A_r=\overline{A}$$$

For each $k$, the function specifies two representations of $A_k$: It returns an array of triples $(A_k, f_k, \mathfrak a_k)$, where $A_k$ is represented as an affine $K$-algebra, and $f_k$ as a map of affine $K$-algebras. The third entry $\mathfrak a_k$ is a tuple $(d_k, J_k)$, consisting of an element $d_k\in A$ and an ideal $J_k\subset A$, such that $\frac{1}{d_k}J_k = A_k$ as $A$-submodules of the total ring of fractions of $A$.

By default (alg = :equidimDec), as a first step on its way to find the decomposition $I=I_1\cap\dots\cap I_r$, the algorithm computes an equidimensional decomposition of the radical ideal $I$. Alternatively, if specified by alg = :primeDec, the algorithm computes $I=I_1\cap\dots\cap I_r$ as the prime decomposition of the radical ideal $I$.

Warning

The function does not check whether $A$ is reduced. Use is_reduced(A) in case you are unsure (this may take some time).

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [(x^2-y^3)*(x^2+y^2)*x]));

julia> L = normalization(A);

julia> size(L)
(2,)

julia> LL = normalization(A, alg = :primeDec);

julia> size(LL)
(3,)

julia> LL
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in T(1), x, y over Rational Field by ideal(-T(1)*y + x, -T(1)*x + y^2, T(1)^2 - y, -x^2 + y^3)

julia> LL
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by ideal(x^5 - x^3*y^3 + x^3*y^2 - x*y^5)
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in T(1), x, y over Rational Field by ideal(-T(1)*y + x, -T(1)*x + y^2, T(1)^2 - y, -x^2 + y^3)

julia> LL
(y, ideal(x, y))
source
normalization_with_deltaMethod
normalization_with_delta(A::MPolyQuo; alg = :equidimDec)

Compute the normalization

$$$A\hookrightarrow A_1\times \dots\times A_r=\overline{A}$$$

of $A$ as does normalize(A), but return additionally the delta invariant of $A$, that is, the dimension

$$$\dim_K(\overline{A}/A)$$$

.

The return value is a tuple whose first element is normalize(A), whose second element is an array containing the delta invariants of the $A_k$, and whose third element is the (total) delta invariant of $A$. The return value -1 in the third element indicates that the delta invariant is infinite.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [(x^2-y^3)*(x^2+y^2)*x]));

julia> L = normalization_with_delta(A);

julia> L
3-element Vector{Int64}:
1
1
0

julia> L
13

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, y, z])

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [z^3-x*y^4]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x*y^4 + z^3), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x*y^4 + z^3) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> L = normalization_with_delta(A)
(Tuple{MPolyQuo{fmpq_mpoly}, Oscar.MPolyAnyMap{MPolyQuo{fmpq_mpoly}, MPolyQuo{fmpq_mpoly}, Nothing, MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}}, Tuple{MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}, MPolyQuoIdeal{fmpq_mpoly}}}[(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in T(1), T(2), x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(T(1)*y - T(2)*z, T(2)*y - z, -T(1)*z + x*y^2, T(1)^2 - x*z, T(1)*T(2) - x*y, -T(1) + T(2)^2, x*y^4 - z^3), Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x*y^4 + z^3)
Codomain:
=========
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in T(1), T(2), x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(T(1)*y - T(2)*z, T(2)*y - z, -T(1)*z + x*y^2, T(1)^2 - x*z, T(1)*T(2) - x*y, -T(1) + T(2)^2, x*y^4 - z^3), (z^2, ideal(x*y^2*z, x*y^3, z^2)))], [-1], -1)
source

## Integral Bases

integral_basisMethod
integral_basis(f::MPolyElem, i::Int; alg = :normal_local)

Given a polynomial $f$ in two variables with coefficients in a field $K$, and given an integer $i\in\{1,2\}$ specifying one of the variables, $f$ must be irreducible and monic in the specified variable: Say, $f\in\mathbb K[x,y]$ is monic in $y$. Then the normalization of $A = K[x,y]/\langle f \rangle$, that is, the integral closure $\overline{A}$ of $A$ in its quotient field, is a free module over $K[x]$ of finite rank, and any set of free generators for $\overline{A}$ over $K[x]$ is called an integral basis for $\overline{A}$ over $K[x]$. The function returns a pair $(d, V)$, where $d$ is an element of $A$, and $V$ is a vector of elements in $A$, such that the fractions $v/d, v\in V$, form an integral basis for $\overline{A}$ over $K[x]$.

By default (alg = :normal_local), the function relies on the local-to-global approach to normalization presented in Janko Böhm, Wolfram Decker, Santiago Laplagne, Gerhard Pfister, Andreas Steenpaß, Stefan Steidel (2013). Alternatively, if specified by alg = :normal_global, the global normalization algorithm in Gert-Martin Greuel, Santiago Laplagne, Frank Seelisch (2010) is used. If $K = \mathbb Q$, it is recommended to apply the algorithm in Janko Böhm, Wolfram Decker, Santiago Laplagne, Gerhard Pfister (2019), which makes use of Puiseux expansions and Hensel lifting (alg = :hensel).

Note

The conditions on $f$ are automatically checked.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, y])

julia> f = (y^2-2)^2 + x^5
x^5 + y^4 - 4*y^2 + 4

julia> integral_basis(f, 2)
(x^2, MPolyQuoElem{fmpq_mpoly}[x^2, x^2*y, y^2 - 2, y^3 - 2*y])
source

## Tests on Affine Algebras

### Reducedness Test

is_reducedMethod
is_reduced(A::MPolyQuo)

Given an affine algebra A, return true if A is reduced, false otherwise.

Warning

The function computes the radical of the modulus of A. This may take some time.

Examples

julia> R, (x,) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x])

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x^4]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field by ideal(x^4), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field by ideal(x^4) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> is_reduced(A)
false
source

### Normality Test

is_normalMethod
is_normal(A::MPolyQuo)

Given an affine algebra A over a perfect field, return true if A is normal, false otherwise.

Note

This function performs the first step of the normalization algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch Gert-Martin Greuel, Santiago Laplagne, Frank Seelisch (2010) and may, thus, be more efficient than computing the full normalization of A.

Examples

julia> R, (x, y, z) = PolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"])
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field, fmpq_mpoly[x, y, z])

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [z^2-x*y]))
(Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x*y + z^2), Map from
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field to Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y, z over Rational Field by ideal(-x*y + z^2) defined by a julia-function with inverse)

julia> is_normal(A)
true
source

### Cohen-Macaulayness Test

iscohenmacaulay(R)

## Hilbert Series and Hilbert Polynomial

Given a multivariate polynomial ring $R$ over a field $K$ together with a (multi)grading on $R$ by a finitely generated abelian group $G$, let $I$ be an ideal of $R$ which is homogeneous with respect to this grading. Then the affine $K-$algebra $A=R/I$ inherits the grading: $A = \bigoplus_{g\in G} A_g$. Suppose now that $R$ is positively graded by $G$. That is, $G$ is free and each graded piece $R_g$ has finite dimension. Then also $A_g$ is a finite dimensional $K$-vector space for each $g$, and we have the well-defined Hilbert function of $A$,

$$$H(A, \underline{\phantom{d}}): G \to \N, \; g\mapsto \dim_K(A_g).$$$

The Hilbert series of $A$ is the generating function

$$$H_A(\mathbb t)=\sum_{g\in G} H(A, g) \mathbb t^g$$$

(see Section 8.2 in Ezra Miller, Bernd Sturmfels (2005) for a formal discussion extending the classical case of $\mathbb Z$-gradings with positive weights to the more general case of multigradings). As in the classical case, the infinitely many values of the Hilbert function can be expressed in finite terms by representing the Hilbert series as a rational function (see Theorem 8.20 in Ezra Miller, Bernd Sturmfels (2005) for a precise statement).

By a result of Macaulay, if $A = R/I$ is an affine algebra, and $L_{>}(I)$ is the leading ideal of $I$ with respect to a global monomial ordering $>$, then the Hilbert function of $A$ equals that of $R/L_{>}(I)$ (see Theorem 15.26 in David Eisenbud (1995)). Thus, using Gröbner bases, the computation of Hilbert series can be reduced to the case where the modulus of the affine algebra is a monomial ideal. In the latter case, we face a problem of combinatorial nature, and there are various strategies of how to proceed (see Martin Kreuzer, Lorenzo Robbiano (2005)). The functions hilbert_series, hilbert_series_reduced, hilbert_series_expanded, hilbert_function, hilbert_polynomial, and degree address the case of $\mathbb Z$-gradings with positive weights, relying on corresponding Singular functionality. The functions multi_hilbert_series, multi_hilbert_series_reduced, and multi_hilbert_function offer a variety of different strategies and allow one to handle positive gradings in general.

### $\mathbb Z$-Gradings With Positive Weights

Let $R=K[x_1, \dots x_n]$ be a polynomial ring in $n$ variables over a field $K$. Assign positive integer weights $w_i$ to the variables $x_i$, and grade $R=\bigoplus_{d\in \mathbb Z} R_d=\bigoplus_{d\geq 0} R_d$ according to the corresponding weighted degree. Let $I$ be an ideal of $R$ which is homogeneous with respect to this grading. Then the affine $K$-algebra $A=R/I$ inherits the grading: $A = \bigoplus_{d\geq 0} A_d$, where each graded piece $A_d$ is a finite dimensional $K$-vector space. In this situation, the Hilbert function of $A$ is of type

$$$H(A, \underline{\phantom{d}}): \N \to \N, \;d \mapsto \dim_K(d),$$$

and the Hilbert series of $A$ is the formal power series

$$$H_A(t)=\sum_{d\geq 0} H(A, d) t^d\in\mathbb Z[[t]].$$$

The Hilbert series can be written as a rational function $p(t)/q(t)$, with denominator

$$$q(t) = (1-t^{w_1})\cdots (1-t^{w_n}).$$$

In the standard $\mathbb Z$-graded case, where the weights on the variables are all 1, the Hilbert function is of polynomial nature: There exists a unique polynomial $P_A(t)\in\mathbb{Q}[t]$, the Hilbert polynomial, which satisfies $H(M,d)=P_M(d)$ for all $d \gg 0$. Furthermore, the degree of $A$ is defined as the dimension of $A$ over $K$ if this dimension is finite, and as the integer $d$ such that the leading term of the Hilbert polynomial has the form $d t^e/e!$, otherwise.

hilbert_seriesMethod
hilbert_series(A::MPolyQuo)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from a $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$ defined by assigning positive integer weights to the variables, return a pair $(p,q)$, say, of univariate polynomials $p, q\in\mathbb Z[t]$ such that $p/q$ represents the Hilbert series of $A$ as a rational function with denominator

$$$q = (1-t^{w_1})\cdots (1-t^{w_n}),$$$

where $n$ is the number of variables of $R$, and $w_1, \dots, w_n$ are the assigned weights.

See also hilbert_series_reduced.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> hilbert_series(A)
(2*t^3 - 3*t^2 + 1, t^4 - 4*t^3 + 6*t^2 - 4*t + 1)

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"], [1, 2, 3]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x*y*z]));

julia> hilbert_series(A)
(-t^6 + 1, -t^6 + t^5 + t^4 - t^2 - t + 1)
source
hilbert_series_reducedMethod
hilbert_series_reduced(A::MPolyQuo)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from a $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$ defined by assigning positive integer weights to the variables, return a pair $(p,q)$, say, of univariate polynomials $p, q\in\mathbb Z[t]$ such that $p/q$ represents the Hilbert series of $A$ as a rational function written in lowest terms.

See also hilbert_series.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> hilbert_series_reduced(A)
(2*t + 1, t^2 - 2*t + 1)

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"], [1, 2, 3]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x*y*z]));

julia> hilbert_series(A)
(-t^6 + 1, -t^6 + t^5 + t^4 - t^2 - t + 1)

julia> hilbert_series_reduced(A)
(t^2 - t + 1, t^2 - 2*t + 1)
source
hilbert_series_expandedMethod
hilbert_series_expanded(A::MPolyQuo, d::Int)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from a $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$ defined by assigning positive integer weights to the variables, return the Hilbert series of $A$ to precision $d$.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> hilbert_series_expanded(A, 7)
1 + 4*t + 7*t^2 + 10*t^3 + 13*t^4 + 16*t^5 + 19*t^6 + 22*t^7 + O(t^8)

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"], [1, 2, 3]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x*y*z]));

julia> hilbert_series_expanded(A, 5)
1 + t + 2*t^2 + 3*t^3 + 4*t^4 + 5*t^5 + O(t^6)
source
hilbert_functionMethod
hilbert_function(A::MPolyQuo, d::Int)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from a $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$ defined by assigning positive integer weights to the variables, return the value $H(A, d),$ where

$$$H(A, \underline{\phantom{d}}): \N \rightarrow \N, \; d \mapsto \dim_K A_d,$$$

is the Hilbert function of $A$.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> hilbert_function(A,7)
22

julia> R, (x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"], [1, 2, 3]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [x*y*z]));

julia> hilbert_function(A, 5)
5
source
hilbert_polynomialMethod
 hilbert_polynomial(A::MPolyQuo)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from the standard $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$, return the Hilbert polynomial of $A$.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> hilbert_polynomial(A)
3*t + 1
source
degreeMethod
degree(A::MPolyQuo)

Given a $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A = R/I$ over a field $K$, where the grading is inherited from the standard $\mathbb Z$-grading on the polynomial ring $R$, return the degree of $A$.

Examples

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> degree(A)
3
source

multi_hilbert_seriesMethod
multi_hilbert_series(A::MPolyQuo; alg::Symbol=:BayerStillmanA)

Return the Hilbert series of the positively graded affine algebra A.

Note

The advanced user can select a alg for the computation; see the code for details.

Examples

julia> W = [1 1 1; 0 0 -1];

julia> R, x = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "x", "x"], W)
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, x, x over Rational Field graded by
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 -1], MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}[x, x, x])

julia> I = ideal(R, [x^3*x, x*x^2, x^2*x, x^4]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, I);

julia> H = multi_hilbert_series(A);

julia> H
-t^7*t^-2 + t^6*t^-1 + t^6*t^-2 + t^5*t^-4 - t^4 + t^4*t^-2 - t^4*t^-4 - t^3*t^-1 - t^3*t^-2 + 1

julia> H
-t^3*t^-1 + t^2 + 2*t^2*t^-1 - 2*t - t*t^-1 + 1

julia> H
GrpAb: Z^2

julia> H
Identity map with

Domain:
=======
GrpAb: Z^2

julia> G = abelian_group(fmpz_mat([1 -1]));

julia> g = gen(G, 1)
Element of
(General) abelian group with relation matrix
[1 -1]
with components [0 1]

julia> W = [g, g, g, g];

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"], W);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> H = multi_hilbert_series(A);

julia> H
2*t^3 - 3*t^2 + 1

julia> H
t^4 - 4*t^3 + 6*t^2 - 4*t + 1

julia> H
GrpAb: Z

julia> H
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Abelian group with structure: Z
Codomain:
=========
(General) abelian group with relation matrix
[1 -1]
with structure of Abelian group with structure: Z
source
multi_hilbert_series_reducedMethod
multi_hilbert_series_reduced(A::MPolyQuo; alg::Symbol=:BayerStillmanA)

Return the reduced Hilbert series of the positively graded affine algebra A.

Note

The advanced user can select a alg for the computation; see the code for details.

Examples

julia> W = [1 1 1; 0 0 -1];

julia> R, x = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "x", "x"], W)
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, x, x over Rational Field graded by
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 -1], MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}[x, x, x])

julia> I = ideal(R, [x^3*x, x*x^2, x^2*x, x^4]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, I);

julia> H = multi_hilbert_series_reduced(A);

julia> H
-t^5*t^-1 + t^3 + t^3*t^-3 + t^2 + t^2*t^-1 + t^2*t^-2 + t + t*t^-1 + 1

julia> H
-t + 1

julia> H
GrpAb: Z^2

julia> H
Identity map with

Domain:
=======
GrpAb: Z^2

julia> G = abelian_group(fmpz_mat([1 -1]));

julia> g = gen(G, 1)
Element of
(General) abelian group with relation matrix
[1 -1]
with components [0 1]

julia> W = [g, g, g, g];

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"], W);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> H = multi_hilbert_series_reduced(A);

julia> H
2*t + 1

julia> H
t^2 - 2*t + 1

julia> H
GrpAb: Z

julia> H
Map with following data
Domain:
=======
Abelian group with structure: Z
Codomain:
=========
(General) abelian group with relation matrix
[1 -1]
with structure of Abelian group with structure: Z
source
multi_hilbert_functionMethod
multi_hilbert_function(A::MPolyQuo, g::GrpAbFinGenElem)

Given a positively graded affine algebra $A$ over a field $K$ with grading group $G$, say, and given an element $g$ of $G$, return the value $H(A, g)$ of the Hilbert function

$$$H(A, \underline{\phantom{d}}): G \to \N, \; g\mapsto \dim_K(A_g).$$$
multi_hilbert_function(A::MPolyQuo, g::Vector{<:IntegerUnion})

Given a positively $\mathbb Z^m$-graded affine algebra $A$ over a field $K$, and given a vector $g$ of $m$ integers, convert $g$ into an element of the grading group of $A$, and return the value $H(A, g)$ as above.

multi_hilbert_function(A::MPolyQuo, g::IntegerUnion)

Given a positively $\mathbb Z$-graded affine algebra $A$ over a field $K$, and given an integer $g$, convert $g$ into an element of the grading group of $A$, and return the value $H(A, g)$ as above.

Examples

julia> W = [1 1 1; 0 0 -1];

julia> R, x = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["x", "x", "x"], W)
(Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, x, x over Rational Field graded by
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 0]
x -> [1 -1], MPolyElem_dec{fmpq, fmpq_mpoly}[x, x, x])

julia> I = ideal(R, [x^3*x, x*x^2, x^2*x, x^4]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, I);

julia> multi_hilbert_function(A::MPolyQuo, [1, 0])
2

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"], [-1, -1, -1, -1]);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> multi_hilbert_function(A, -7)
22

julia> G = abelian_group(fmpz_mat([1 -1]));

julia> g = gen(G, 1);

julia> W = [g, g, g, g];

julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = GradedPolynomialRing(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"], W);

julia> A, _ = quo(R, ideal(R, [w*y-x^2, w*z-x*y, x*z-y^2]));

julia> multi_hilbert_function(A, 7*g)
22
source