# Projective Plane Curves

ProjectivePlaneCurveType
ProjectivePlaneCurve <: AbsProjectiveCurve

A reduced curve in the projective plane.

Examples

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = plane_curve(y^3*x^6 - y^6*x^2*z)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = x^5*y - x*y^4*z

source

Projective plane curves are modeled in Oscar as projective algebraic sets. See AbsProjectiveAlgebraicSet(@ref). In addition to the methods for algebraic sets the following methods special to plane curves are available.

defining_equationMethod
defining_equation(C::AffinePlaneCurve)

Return the defining equation of C.

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defining_equation(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve)

Return the defining equation of the (reduced) plane curve C.

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degreeMethod
degree(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve)

Return the degree of the defining polynomial of C.

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common_componentsMethod
common_components(C::S, D::S) where {S<:ProjectivePlaneCurve}

Return the projective plane curve consisting of the common components of C and D, or an empty vector if they do not have a common component.

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multiplicityMethod
 multiplicity(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve{S}, P::AbsProjectiveRationalPoint)

Return the multiplicity of C at P.

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tangent_linesMethod
  tangent_lines(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve{S}, P::AbsProjectiveRationalPoint) where S <: FieldElem

Return the tangent lines at P to C with their multiplicity.

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intersection_multiplicityMethod
 intersection_multiplicity(C::S, D::S, P::AbsProjectiveRationalPoint) where S <: ProjectivePlaneCurve

Return the intersection multiplicity of C and D at P.

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is_transverse_intersectionMethod
 is_transverse_intersection(C::S, D::S, P::AbsProjectiveRationalPoint) where S <: ProjectivePlaneCurve

Return true if C and D intersect transversally at P and false otherwise.

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arithmetic_genusMethod
arithmetic_genus(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve)

Return the arithmetic genus of C.

Examples

julia> T, (x, y, z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = plane_curve(y^2 * z - x^3 - x * z^2)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = x^3 + x*z^2 - y^2*z

julia> arithmetic_genus(C)
1
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geometric_genusMethod
geometric_genus(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve; check::Bool=true)

Return the geometric genus of C.

If C is singular this is defined as the geometric genus of any smooth birational model of C.

If check is true, checks that C is an irreducible curve.

Examples

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = plane_curve(z*x^2-y^3)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = x^2*z - y^3

julia> geometric_genus(C)
0

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# Rational Parametrizations of Rational Plane Curves

Note

In this section, $C$ will denote a complex projective plane curve, defined by an absolutely irreducible, homogeneous polynomial in three variables, with coefficients in $\mathbb Q$. Moreover, we will write $n = \deg C$.

Recall that the curve $C$ is rational if it is birationally equivalent to the projective line $\mathbb P^1(\mathbb C)$. In other words, there exists a rational parametrization of $C$, that is, a birational map $\mathbb P^1(\mathbb C)\dashrightarrow C$. Note that such a parametrization is given by three homogeneous polynomials of the same degree in the homogeneous coordinates on $\mathbb P^1(\mathbb C)$.

Note

The curve $C$ is rational iff its geometric genus is zero.

Based on work of Max Noether on adjoint curves, Hilbert und Hurwitz showed that if $C$ is rational, then there is a birational map $C \dashrightarrow D$ defined over $\mathbb Q$ such that $D = \mathbb P^1(\mathbb C)$ if $n$ is odd, and $D\subset\mathbb P^2(\mathbb C)$ is a conic if $n$ is even.

Note

If a conic $D$ contains a rational point, then there exists a parametrization of $D$ defined over $\mathbb Q$; otherwise, there exists a parametrization of $D$ defined over a quadratic field extension of $\mathbb Q$.

The approach of Hilbert und Hurwitz is constructive and allows one, in principle, to find rational parametrizations. The resulting algorithm is not very practical, however, as the approach asks to compute adjoint curves repeatedly, at each of a number of reduction steps.

The algorithm implemented in OSCAR relies on reduction steps of a different type and requires the computation of adjoint curves only once. Its individual steps are interesting in their own right:

• Assure that the curve $C$ is rational by checking that its geometric genus is zero;
• compute a basis of the adjoint curves of $C$ of degree ${n-2}$; each such basis defines a birational map $C \dashrightarrow C_{n-2},$ where $C_{n-2}$ is a rational normal curve in $\mathbb P^{n-2}(\mathbb C)$;
• the anticanonical linear system on $C_{n-2}$ defines a birational map $C_{n-2}\dashrightarrow C_{n-4}$, where $C_{n-4}$ is a rational normal curve in in $\mathbb P^{n-4}(\mathbb C)$;
• iterate the previous step to obtain a birational map $C_{n-2} \dashrightarrow \dots \dashrightarrow D$, where $D = \mathbb P^1(\mathbb C)$ if $n$ is odd, and $D\subset\mathbb P^2(\mathbb C)$ is a conic if $n$ is even;
• invert the birational map $C \dashrightarrow C_{n-2} \dashrightarrow \dots \dashrightarrow D$;
• if $n$ is even, compute a parametrization of the conic $D$ and compose it with the inverted map above.
Note

The defining property of an adjoint curve is that it passes with “sufficiently high” multiplicity through the singularities of $C$. There are several concepts of making this precise. For each such concept, there is a corresponding adjoint ideal of $C$, namely the homogeneous ideal formed by the defining polynomials of the adjoint curves. In OSCAR, we follow the concept of Gorenstein which leads to the largest possible adjoint ideal.

See [Bhm99] and [BDLP17] for details and further references.

## Adjoint Ideals of Plane Curves

adjoint_idealMethod
adjoint_ideal(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve{QQField})

Return the Gorenstein adjoint ideal of C.

Examples

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = ProjectivePlaneCurve(y^4-2*x^3*z+3*x^2*z^2-2*y^2*z^2)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = 2*x^3*z - 3*x^2*z^2 - y^4 + 2*y^2*z^2

Ideal generated by
-x*z + y^2
x*y - y*z
x^2 - x*z

source

## Rational Points on Conics

rational_point_conicMethod
rational_point_conic(D::ProjectivePlaneCurve{QQField})

If the plane conic D contains a rational point, return the homogeneous coordinates of such a point. If no such point exists, return a point on D defined over a quadratic field extension of $\mathbb Q$.

Examples

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = ProjectivePlaneCurve(y^4-2*x^3*z+3*x^2*z^2-2*y^2*z^2)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = 2*x^3*z - 3*x^2*z^2 - y^4 + 2*y^2*z^2

Ideal generated by
-x*z + y^2
x*y - y*z
x^2 - x*z

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> D = ProjectivePlaneCurve(x^2 + 2*y^2 + 5*z^2 - 4*x*y + 3*x*z + 17*y*z);

julia> P = rational_point_conic(D)
3-element Vector{AbstractAlgebra.Generic.MPoly{AbsSimpleNumFieldElem}}:
-1//4*a
-1//4*a + 1//4
0

julia> S = parent(P[1])
Multivariate polynomial ring in 3 variables x, y, z
over number field of degree 2 over QQ

julia> NF = base_ring(S)
Number field with defining polynomial t^2 - 2
over rational field

julia> a = gen(NF)
a

julia> minpoly(a)
t^2 - 2

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## Parametrizing Rational Plane Curves

parametrizationMethod
parametrization(C::ProjectivePlaneCurve{QQField})

Return a rational parametrization of C.

Examples

julia> R, (x,y,z) = graded_polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y", "z"]);

julia> C = ProjectivePlaneCurve(y^4-2*x^3*z+3*x^2*z^2-2*y^2*z^2)
Projective plane curve
defined by 0 = 2*x^3*z - 3*x^2*z^2 - y^4 + 2*y^2*z^2

julia> parametrization(C)
3-element Vector{QQMPolyRingElem}:
12*s^4 - 8*s^2*t^2 + t^4
-12*s^3*t + 2*s*t^3
8*s^4

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