# Algebraic numbers

Nemo allows working with exact real and complex algebraic numbers.

The default algebraic number type in Nemo is provided by Calcium. The associated field of algebraic numbers can be constructed using QQBar = algebraic_closure(QQ). We will leave out this line from all code blocks on this page for brevity.

LibraryElement typeParent type
CalciumQQBarFieldElemQQBarField

Important note on performance

The default algebraic number type represents algebraic numbers in canonical form using minimal polynomials. This works well for representing individual algebraic numbers, but it does not provide the best performance for field arithmetic. For fast calculation in $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$, CalciumField should typically be used instead (see the section on Exact real and complex numbers). Alternatively, to compute in a fixed subfield of $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$, you may fix a generator $a$ and construct a number field to represent $\mathbb{Q}(a)$.

## Algebraic number functionality

### Constructing algebraic numbers

Methods to construct algebraic numbers include:

• Conversion from other numbers and through arithmetic operations
• Computing the roots of a given polynomial
• Computing the eigenvalues of a given matrix
• Random generation
• Exact trigonometric functions (see later section)
• Guessing (see later section)

Examples

Arithmetic:

julia> ZZRingElem(QQBar(3))
3

julia> QQFieldElem(QQBar(3) // 2)
3//2

julia> QQBar(-1) ^ (QQBar(1) // 3)
Root 0.500000 + 0.866025*im of x^2 - x + 1

Solving the quintic equation:

julia> R, x = polynomial_ring(QQ, "x")
(Univariate polynomial ring in x over QQ, x)

julia> v = roots(QQBar, x^5-x-1)
5-element Vector{QQBarFieldElem}:
Root 1.16730 of x^5 - x - 1
Root 0.181232 + 1.08395*im of x^5 - x - 1
Root 0.181232 - 1.08395*im of x^5 - x - 1
Root -0.764884 + 0.352472*im of x^5 - x - 1
Root -0.764884 - 0.352472*im of x^5 - x - 1

julia> v[1]^5 - v[1] - 1 == 0
true

Computing exact eigenvalues of a matrix:

julia> eigenvalues(QQBar, ZZ[1 1 0; 0 1 1; 1 0 1])
3-element Vector{QQBarFieldElem}:
Root 2.00000 of x - 2
Root 0.500000 + 0.866025*im of x^2 - x + 1
Root 0.500000 - 0.866025*im of x^2 - x + 1

Interface

rootsMethod
roots(R::QQBarField, f::ZZPolyRingElem)

Return all the roots of the polynomial f in the field of algebraic numbers R. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers. Roots of multiplicity higher than one are repeated according to their multiplicity.

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rootsMethod
roots(R::QQBarField, f::QQPolyRingElem)

Return all the roots of the polynomial f in the field of algebraic numbers R. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers. Roots of multiplicity higher than one are repeated according to their multiplicity.

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eigenvaluesMethod
eigenvalues(R::QQBarField, A::ZZMatrix)
eigenvalues(R::QQBarField, A::QQMatrix)

Return the eigenvalues A in the field of algebraic numbers R. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers.

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eigenvalues(L::Field, M::MatElem{T}) where T <: RingElem

Return the eigenvalues of M over the field L.

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eigenvalues_with_multiplicitiesMethod
eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(R::QQBarField, A::ZZMatrix)
eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(R::QQBarField, A::QQMatrix)

Return the eigenvalues A in the field of algebraic numbers R together with their algebraic multiplicities as a vector of tuples. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers.

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eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(L::Field, M::MatElem{T}) where T <: RingElem

Return the eigenvalues of M over the field L together with their algebraic multiplicities as a vector of tuples.

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eigenvaluesMethod
eigenvalues(R::QQBarField, A::ZZMatrix)
eigenvalues(R::QQBarField, A::QQMatrix)

Return the eigenvalues A in the field of algebraic numbers R. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers.

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eigenvalues(L::Field, M::MatElem{T}) where T <: RingElem

Return the eigenvalues of M over the field L.

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eigenvalues_with_multiplicitiesMethod
eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(R::QQBarField, A::ZZMatrix)
eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(R::QQBarField, A::QQMatrix)

Return the eigenvalues A in the field of algebraic numbers R together with their algebraic multiplicities as a vector of tuples. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers.

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eigenvalues_with_multiplicities(L::Field, M::MatElem{T}) where T <: RingElem

Return the eigenvalues of M over the field L together with their algebraic multiplicities as a vector of tuples.

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randMethod
rand(R::QQBarField; degree::Int, bits::Int, randtype::Symbol=:null)

Return a random algebraic number with degree up to degree and coefficients up to bits in size. By default, both real and complex numbers are generated. Set the optional randtype to :real or :nonreal to generate a specific type of number. Note that nonreal numbers require degree at least 2.

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### Numerical evaluation

Examples

Algebraic numbers can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision by converting to real or complex Arb fields:

julia> RR = ArbField(64); RR(sqrt(QQBar(2)))
[1.414213562373095049 +/- 3.45e-19]

julia> CC = AcbField(32); CC(QQBar(-1) ^ (QQBar(1) // 4))
[0.707106781 +/- 2.74e-10] + [0.707106781 +/- 2.74e-10]*im

### Minimal polynomials, conjugates, and properties

Examples

Retrieving the minimal polynomial and algebraic conjugates of a given algebraic number:

julia> minpoly(polynomial_ring(ZZ, "x")[1], QQBar(1+2im))
x^2 - 2*x + 5

julia> conjugates(QQBar(1+2im))
2-element Vector{QQBarFieldElem}:
Root 1.00000 + 2.00000*im of x^2 - 2x + 5
Root 1.00000 - 2.00000*im of x^2 - 2x + 5

Interface

iszeroMethod
iszero(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return whether x is the number 0.

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isoneMethod
isone(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return whether x is the number 1.

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isrealMethod
isreal(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return whether x is a real number.

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degreeMethod
degree(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the degree of the minimal polynomial of x.

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minpolyMethod
minpoly(R::ZZPolyRing, x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the minimal polynomial of x as an element of the polynomial ring R.

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minpolyMethod
minpoly(R::ZZPolyRing, x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the minimal polynomial of x as an element of the polynomial ring R.

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conjugatesMethod
conjugates(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return all the roots of the polynomial f in the field of algebraic numbers R. The output array is sorted in the default sort order for algebraic numbers.

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denominatorMethod
denominator(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the denominator of x, defined as the leading coefficient of the minimal polynomial of x. The result is returned as an ZZRingElem.

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numeratorMethod
numerator(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the numerator of x, defined as x multiplied by its denominator. The result is an algebraic integer.

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heightMethod
height(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the height of the algebraic number x. The result is an ZZRingElem integer.

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height_bitsMethod
height_bits(x::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the height of the algebraic number x measured in bits. The result is a Julia integer.

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### Complex parts

Examples

julia> real(sqrt(QQBar(1im)))
Root 0.707107 of 2x^2 - 1

julia> abs(sqrt(QQBar(1im)))
Root 1.00000 of x - 1

julia> floor(sqrt(QQBar(1000)))
Root 31.0000 of x - 31

julia> sign(QQBar(-10-20im))
Root -0.447214 - 0.894427*im of 5x^4 + 6x^2 + 5

Interface

realMethod
real(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the real part of a.

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imagMethod
imag(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the imaginary part of a.

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absMethod
abs(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the absolute value of a.

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abs2Method
abs2(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the squared absolute value of a.

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conjMethod
conj(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the complex conjugate of a.

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signMethod
sign(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the complex sign of a, defined as zero if a is zero and as $a / |a|$ otherwise.

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csgnMethod
csgn(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the extension of the real sign function taking the value 1 strictly in the right half plane, -1 strictly in the left half plane, and the sign of the imaginary part when on the imaginary axis. Equivalently, $\operatorname{csgn}(x) = x / \sqrt{x^2}$ except that the value is 0 at zero. The value is returned as a Julia integer.

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sign_realMethod
sign_real(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the sign of the real part of a as a Julia integer.

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sign_imagMethod
sign_imag(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return the sign of the imaginary part of a as a Julia integer.

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### Comparing algebraic numbers

The operators == and != check exactly for equality.

We provide various comparison functions for ordering algebraic numbers:

• Standard comparison for real numbers (<, isless)
• Real parts
• Imaginary parts
• Absolute values
• Absolute values of real or imaginary parts
• Root sort order

The standard comparison will throw if either argument is nonreal.

The various comparisons for complex parts are provided as separate operations since these functions are far more efficient than explicitly computing the complex parts and then doing real comparisons.

The root sort order is a total order for complex algebraic numbers used to order the output of roots and conjugates canonically. We define this order as follows: real roots come first, in descending order. Nonreal roots are subsequently ordered first by real part in descending order, then in ascending order by the absolute value of the imaginary part, and then in descending order of the sign of the imaginary part. This implies that complex conjugate roots are adjacent, with the root in the upper half plane first.

Examples

julia> 1 < sqrt(QQBar(2)) < QQBar(3)//2
true

julia> x = QQBar(3+4im)
Root 3.00000 + 4.00000*im of x^2 - 6x + 25

julia> is_equal_abs(x, -x)
true

julia> is_equal_abs_imag(x, 2-x)
true

julia> is_less_real(x, x // 2)
false

Interface

is_equal_realMethod
is_equal_real(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the real parts of a and b.

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is_equal_imagMethod
is_equal_imag(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the imaginary parts of a and b.

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is_equal_absMethod
is_equal_abs(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of a and b.

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is_equal_abs_realMethod
is_equal_abs_real(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of the real parts of a and b.

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is_equal_abs_imagMethod
is_equal_abs_imag(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of the imaginary parts of a and b.

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is_less_realMethod
is_less_real(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the real parts of a and b.

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is_less_imagMethod
is_less_imag(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the imaginary parts of a and b.

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is_less_absMethod
is_less_abs(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of a and b.

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is_less_abs_realMethod
is_less_abs_real(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of the real parts of a and b.

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is_less_abs_imagMethod
is_less_abs_imag(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the absolute values of the imaginary parts of a and b.

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is_less_root_orderMethod
is_less_root_order(a::QQBarFieldElem, b::QQBarFieldElem)

Compares the a and b in root sort order.

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### Roots and trigonometric functions

Examples

julia> root(QQBar(2), 5)
Root 1.14870 of x^5 - 2

julia> sinpi(QQBar(7) // 13)
Root 0.992709 of 4096x^12 - 13312x^10 + 16640x^8 - 9984x^6 + 2912x^4 - 364x^2 + 13

julia> tanpi(atanpi(sqrt(QQBar(2)) + 1))
Root 2.41421 of x^2 - 2x - 1

julia> root_of_unity(QQBar, 5)
Root 0.309017 + 0.951057*im of x^4 + x^3 + x^2 + x + 1

julia> root_of_unity(QQBar, 5, 4)
Root 0.309017 - 0.951057*im of x^4 + x^3 + x^2 + x + 1

julia> w = (1 - sqrt(QQBar(-3)))//2
Root 0.500000 - 0.866025*im of x^2 - x + 1

julia> is_root_of_unity(w)
true

julia> is_root_of_unity(w + 1)
false

julia> root_of_unity_as_args(w)
(6, 5)

Interface

sqrtMethod
sqrt(a::QQBarFieldElem; check::Bool=true)

Return the principal square root of a.

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rootMethod
root(a::QQBarFieldElem, n::Int)

Return the principal n-th root of a. Requires positive n.

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root_of_unityMethod
root_of_unity(C::QQBarField, n::Int)

Return the root of unity $e^{2 \pi i / n}$ as an element of the field of algebraic numbers C.

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root_of_unityMethod
root_of_unity(C::QQBarField, n::Int, k::Int)

Return the root of unity $e^{2 \pi i k / n}$ as an element of the field of algebraic numbers C.

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root_of_unity_as_argsMethod
root_of_unity_as_args(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return a pair of integers (q, p) such that the given a equals $e^{2 \pi i p / q}$. The denominator q will be minimal, with $0 \le p < q$. Throws if a is not a root of unity.

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exp_pi_iMethod
exp_pi_i(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $e^{\pi i a}$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental.

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log_pi_iMethod
log_pi_i(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\log(a) / (\pi i)$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental or undefined.

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sinpiMethod
sinpi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\sin(\pi a)$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental.

Examples

julia> QQBar = algebraic_closure(QQ);

julia> x = sinpi(QQBar(1//3))
Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3

julia> sinpi(x)
ERROR: DomainError with Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3:
nonrational algebraic number
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cospiMethod
cospi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\cos(\pi a)$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental.

Examples

julia> QQBar = algebraic_closure(QQ);

julia> x = cospi(QQBar(1//6))
Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3

julia> cospi(x)
ERROR: DomainError with Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3:
nonrational algebraic number
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sincospiMethod
sincospi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\sin(\pi a)$ and $\cos(\pi a)$ as a pair of algebraic numbers. Throws if either value is transcendental.

Examples

julia> QQBar = algebraic_closure(QQ);

julia> s, c = sincospi(QQBar(1//3))
(Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3, Root 0.500000 of 2x - 1)

julia> sincospi(s)
ERROR: DomainError with Root 0.866025 of 4x^2 - 3:
nonrational algebraic number
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tanpiMethod
tanpi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\tan(\pi a)$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental or undefined.

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asinpiMethod
asinpi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\operatorname{asin}(a) / \pi$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental.

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acospiMethod
acospi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\operatorname{acos}(a) / \pi$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental.

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atanpiMethod
atanpi(a::QQBarFieldElem)

Return $\operatorname{atan}(a) / \pi$ as an algebraic number. Throws if this value is transcendental or undefined.

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### Guessing

Examples

An algebraic number can be recovered from a numerical value:

julia> RR = RealField(); guess(QQBar, RR("1.41421356 +/- 1e-6"), 2)
Root 1.41421 of x^2 - 2

Warning: the input should be an enclosure. If you have a floating-point approximation, you should add an error estimate; otherwise, at best the only algebraic number that can be guessed is the binary floating-point number itself, at worst no guess is possible.

julia> RR = RealField();

julia> x = RR(0.1)       # note: 53-bit binary approximation of 1//10 without radius
[0.10000000000000000555 +/- 1.12e-21]

julia> guess(QQBar, x, 1)
ERROR: No suitable algebraic number found

julia> guess(QQBar, x + RR("+/- 1e-10"), 1)
Root 0.100000 of 10x - 1

Interface

guessFunction
guess(R::QQBarField, x::AcbFieldElem, maxdeg::Int, maxbits::Int=0)
guess(R::QQBarField, x::ArbFieldElem, maxdeg::Int, maxbits::Int=0)
guess(R::QQBarField, x::ComplexFieldElem, maxdeg::Int, maxbits::Int=0)
guess(R::QQBarField, x::RealFieldElem, maxdeg::Int, maxbits::Int=0)

Try to reconstruct an algebraic number from a given numerical enclosure x. The algorithm looks for candidates up to degree maxdeg and with coefficients up to size maxbits (which defaults to the precision of x if not given). Throws if no suitable algebraic number can be found.

Guessing typically requires high precision to succeed, and it does not make much sense to call this function with input precision smaller than $O(maxdeg \cdot maxbits)$. If this function succeeds, then the output is guaranteed to be contained in the enclosure x, but failure does not prove that such an algebraic number with the specified parameters does not exist.

This function does a single iteration with the target parameters. For best performance, one should invoke this function repeatedly with successively larger parameters when the size of the intended solution is unknown or may be much smaller than a worst-case bound.

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