# Introduction

This chapter deals with number fields and orders there of. We follow the common terminology and conventions as e.g. used in Henri Cohen (1993), Henri Cohen (2000), M. Pohst, H. Zassenhaus (1997) or Daniel A. Marcus (2018).

If $K$ is a number field, then an *order* $\mathcal O$ of $K$ is a subring of the ring of integers $\mathcal O_K$ of $K$, which is free of rank $[K : \mathbf Q]$ as a $\mathbf Z$-module. Depending on whether $K$ is an absolute field or relative field, orders are treated differently. As far as possible, the interaction and the interface for orders of absolute number fields and of relative number fields is the same.

## Orders of absolute number fields

Assume that $K$ is defined as an absolute field. An order $\mathcal O$ of such a field are constructed (implicitly) by specifying a $\mathbf Z$-basis, which is referred to as the *basis* of $\mathcal O$. If $(\omega_1,\dotsc,\omega_d)$ is the basis of $\mathcal O$ and $(\alpha_1,\dotsc,\alpha_d)$ the basis of $K$, then the matrix $B \in \operatorname{Mat}_{d \times d}(\mathbf Q)$ with

\[\begin{pmatrix} \omega_1 \\ \vdots \\ \omega_d \end{pmatrix} = B \begin{pmatrix} \alpha_1 \\ \vdots \\ \alpha_d \end{pmatrix}\]

is the *basis matrix* of $K$. If $K = \mathbf{Q}(\alpha) = \mathbf{Q}[x]/(f)$ is simple with $f \in \mathbf{Z}[x]$, then natural order $\mathbf Z[\alpha] = \mathbf{Z}[x]/(f)$ is called the *equation order* of $K$.

## Orders of relative number fields

Orders in non-absolute number fields, that is, relative extensions, are represented differently. Let $L/K$ be a finite extension of number fields, then currently we require any order in $L$ to contain $\mathcal O_K$, the ring of integers of $K$. In this case, an order $\mathcal O$ in $L$ is a finitly generated torsion-free module over the Dedekind domain $\mathcal O_K$. As a ring, the order $\mathcal O$ is unitary and has $L$ as a fraction field. Due to $\mathcal O_K$ in general not being a principal ideal domain, the module structure is more complicated and requires so called pseudo-matrices. See here for details on pseudo-matrices, or Henri Cohen (2000), Chapter 1 for an introduction.

In short, $\mathcal O$ is represented as $\sum \mathfrak a_i \omega_i$ with fractional $\mathcal O_K$ ideals $\mathfrak a_i\subset K$ and $K$-linear independent elements $\omega_i\in L$. In general it is impossible to have both $\mathfrak a_i$ integral and $\omega_i \in \mathcal O$, thus coefficients will not be integral and/or generators not in the structure.

## Examples

Usually, to create an order, one starts with a field (or a polynomial):

`julia> Qx, x = polynomial_ring(QQ, "x");`

`julia> K, a = number_field(x^2 - 10, "a");`

`julia> E = EquationOrder(K)`

`Maximal order of Number field of degree 2 over QQ with basis nf_elem[1, a]`

`julia> Z_K = MaximalOrder(K)`

`Maximal order of Number field of degree 2 over QQ with basis nf_elem[1, a]`

`julia> conductor(E)`

`<no 2-elts present> basis_matrix [1 0; 0 1]`

`julia> E == Z_K`

`true`

Once orders are created, we can play with elements and ideals:

`julia> lp = prime_decomposition(Z_K, 2)`

`1-element Vector{Tuple{NfOrdIdl, Int64}}: (<2, a> Norm: 2 Minimum: 2 two normal wrt: 2, 2)`

`julia> p = lp[1][1]`

`<2, a> Norm: 2 Minimum: 2 two normal wrt: 2`

`julia> is_principal(p)`

`(false, 1)`

`julia> fl, alpha = is_principal(p^2)`

`(true, 2)`

`julia> norm(alpha)`

`4`

It is possible to work with residue fields as well:

`julia> Fp, mFp = residue_field(Z_K, p)`

`(Finite field of degree 1 over GF(2), Map with following data Domain: ======= Maximal order of Number field of degree 2 over QQ with basis nf_elem[1, a] Codomain: ========= Finite field of degree 1 over GF(2))`

`julia> [ mFp(x) for x = basis(Z_K)]`

`2-element Vector{FqFieldElem}: 1 0`